LANGUAGE ART http://www.languageart.ir/index.php/LA <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/admin95/ejeld1005.jpg" width="621" height="452"></p> <p>Welcome to the&nbsp;site of&nbsp;International Multilingual Journal of <strong>Language Art</strong>. This journal is a peer reviewed publication that&nbsp;studies about&nbsp;linguistic and languages, which is the only scientific journal in Islamic Republic of Iran that is published in various languages as per the choice of the author (Persian, English, Arabic, Tajik and Russian)and soon we will add some experts of French language to our Editorial Team. The journal follows double-blind peer review process. The journal seeks original manuscripts that provide theoretically informed empirical analyses of worldwide contemporary issues, as well as original theoretical or conceptual analyses.</p> <p>Print ISSN:&nbsp;2476-6526 &nbsp;&amp; Online ISSN: 2538-2713</p> <p><span style="color: black; font-size: 14pt;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">&nbsp;</span></span></p> Language Art en-US LANGUAGE ART 2476-6526 <div><span style="color: white;"><img src="/public/site/images/admin95/CC-BY_icon.svg_.png" alt="" /></span><br /> <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode">"Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0)"</a></div> Horse in the Persian and Russian Literatures http://www.languageart.ir/index.php/LA/article/view/97 In this paper, the place of the horse in the Persian and Russian literary works has been discussed. In the literature of both nations, horses mostly own human characteristics and are counted as humansʼ faithful companions and friends. This legendary animal, in the literature of both countries, has always been a positive symbol and never does have negative characteristics. In order to explain this case, we resorted to some literary works from both nations in which horses played a role. By contrast, in one of the famous Russian heroics entitled “A Song of the Wise Oleg”, one of the historical Russian stories which merge with Russian myths, the role of the horse is different from the other literary works and it somehow unconsciously causes the hero to die. In the heroic stories, the horse is considered as a complement for heroʼs character and plays an important role in developing his personality. The purpose of this research was to indicate the perspectives of two cultures on a common symbol. زینب صادقی سهل آباد معصومه عبدلی ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 4 2 7 24 10.22046/LA.2019.07 A Critique of the Description and Emendation of the “Four Discourses” http://www.languageart.ir/index.php/LA/article/view/127 Although the book Four Discourses is compact, it is a literally valuable work due to its authorʼs power in the two literary styles of simple prose and technical prose. In addition, the worthwhile information provided by this book about four professions of secretaryship, poetics, astronomy, and iatrology has added to the value of this book. Moreover, it is somehow considered a memorandum which should not be neglected. So, there is no doubt that understanding the beauties of the text of this literary treasure and enjoying it is dependent on the correct understanding of form and meaning of its text. Since after the wise emendation of the book Four Discourses by Allameh Mohammad Ghazvini, only professor Mohammad Moin has described this valuable work, and along with the description, he also has made some suggestions on the re-correction of some of its vocabularies; therefore, in this essay, it is tried to indicate some of the shortcomings of this single exposition. Subsequently, Moinʼs suggestions have been critically to present a more suitable and correct interpretation according to the text of the Four Discourses based on the in-text and out-text evidence as well as regarding the other related sources. جمال انصاری جابری شاهرخ محمدبیگی ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 4 2 25 50 10.22046/LA.2019.08 The Influence of Persian Language and Iranian Mysticism on the Songs of Fakir Lalon Shah http://www.languageart.ir/index.php/LA/article/view/126 Fakir Lalon Shah is a well known and renounced lyricist in the field of music in Bangladesh. About ten thousand lyrics of Lalon’s folk songs were composed verbally, but only 1100 songs have been preserved till now. There are many different perceptions about Lalon Shah from religious sights, he composed songs of love, equality, and spirituality. When he was born in Bengal, the whole subcontinent was under British imperialism. Persian language was prevalent in Indian subcontinent more than six hundred years. It was the state language during Mongol Empire. Since then, Persian language and literature, customs and culture were assimilated with the Bengali language, literature, and culture. It has a great influence on Bengali literature. Many poets of Bangladesh have used Persian words and elements in their literature. They also composed books in Persian language whose manuscripts can be found in this region at present. In this sequence, spiritual songs and folk songs of Lalon Shah were found also in Iran and the Iranian were also privileged from the Persian words and elements used by him. In this article, the effects of Persian Language and Iranian spirituality on Lalon’s songs will be discussed. Mohammad Noor-e Alam Fahad Mumin ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 4 2 51 68 10.22046/LA.2019.09 Silent Language and Its Function in Successful Relation http://www.languageart.ir/index.php/LA/article/view/117 Language is a communicative instrument in peoplesʼ lives in society, but it is not the only instrument for communication. People have other non-lingual instruments like Silent Language which its function is to make communication. This language has a constructive and crucial role in the types of communication in people's lives. Almost 30 to 40 percent of our methods of communication is verbal, and around 60 to 70 percent is non-verbal. The research method of this study is descriptive-analytic in which non-verbal communication aspects like kinesis, proxemics, chromatics, turn taking, paralanguage, silent language, and the Maptic system have been studied. This research indicates that the relations in the Middle East, especially in Arab countries, are based on context and unfamiliarity with the other cultures leads to failure in communication. Since the difference of sovereignty in Arab countries is so clear, the distribution of speech turns in this culture is based on individual characteristics such as age, social place, and power. In Arab culture, less attention is paid to time in contrary to the western culture. In conversations the Arabs tend to move closer to the hearer; however, this in relation to the distance in the western culture, tends to convey sexual feelings or enmity. روح الله صیادی نژاد ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 4 2 69 82 10.22046/LA.2019.10 Towards a Critical Cognitive Linguistics? http://www.languageart.ir/index.php/LA/article/view/125 This paper asks whether the Cognitive Linguistics and Critical Discourse Analysis share any common basics and investigate a possible synthesis between them. The Critical Discourse Analysis can make the cognitive framework self-reflexive and more oriented towards the social context, reinforcing a contextualized analysis of meaning. The Cognitive Linguistics models can offer tools to Critical Discourse Analysis for theorizing analytical concepts like metaphorical representations and context. Furthermore, a synthesis will be a possible option if the two disciplines share a common domain. The accommodation must be made at the level of theoretical inconsistencies. Peter Stockwell Elmellakh Mhammed ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 4 2 83 104 10.22046/LA.2019.11 “Through-Produced” Multiple Questions in Tagalog-English Faculty Meetings: Setting the Agenda Dimension of Questions http://www.languageart.ir/index.php/LA/article/view/95 This study describes the sequential pattern of “through-produced” multiple questions using Conversation Analysis that sets the agenda dimension of questions, and the academic conditions that advance its use during turns at talk from five faculty meetings. Results show that a. No first-pair of the “through-produced” questions has been answered; b. the answers to the second-pair questions are achieved through paraphrases, clarifications, keyword repetitions, and circuitous rephrasing until the hearer conforms with the agenda set; c. The subordinates frame their default identities with lower epistemic knowledge, and d. “Through-produced” multiple questions can be a manifestation of Chair’s power. Implications and recommendations for cross-linguistic comparisons are offered to generalize the findings beyond the specific domain of the meeting. Leonardo O. Munalim Cecilia F. Genuino ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2019-05-28 2019-05-28 4 2 105 122 10.22046/LA.2019.12