LANGUAGE ART https://www.languageart.ir/index.php/LA <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/admin95/ejeld1005.jpg" width="621" height="452"></p> <p>Welcome to the&nbsp;site of&nbsp;International Multilingual Journal of <strong>Language Art</strong>. This journal is a peer reviewed publication that&nbsp;studies about&nbsp;linguistic and languages, which is the only scientific journal in Islamic Republic of Iran that is published in various languages as per the choice of the author (Persian, English, Arabic, Tajik and Russian) and soon we will add some experts of French language to our Editorial Team. The journal follows double-blind peer review process. The journal seeks original manuscripts that provide theoretically informed empirical analyses of worldwide contemporary issues, as well as original theoretical or conceptual analyses.</p> <p>Print ISSN:&nbsp;2476-6526 &nbsp;&amp; Online ISSN: 2538-2713</p> <p><span style="color: black; font-size: 14pt;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">&nbsp;</span></span></p> Language Art en-US LANGUAGE ART 2476-6526 <div><span style="color: white;"><img src="/public/site/images/admin95/CC-BY_icon.svg_.png" alt="" /></span><br /> <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode">"Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0)"</a></div> Song of the Seas https://www.languageart.ir/index.php/LA/article/view/171 Literature is a combination of fact and fiction which is uttered in the form of a language. The symbol as the most fathomless literary layer of fiction has been regarded since fore times. Meanwhile, the influence of symbolism, following French literature, on Iranian contemporary literature specifically on poetic works of Mehdi Akhavan-Sales and Ahmad Shamlo is an undeniable fact. With regard to this fact, the present inquiry is meant to assess indiscriminately the creativity power of these two poets in the realm of symbolism. This way enables us to enlighten the controversy among proponents of these two poets and about their places and their levels of poetry. This research reveals their conformity with Nima, and French symbolism, they have poetically depicted their own contemporary political occurrences. Despite the frequency of personal symbols and the type of language on their works (with regard to the applied formal, academic or colloquial languages) which have emphasis on special symbolic images (hyper symbolic) and …, there are also considerable differences between them. It should be noted; symbolization is some part of poets' strength and to evaluate it meticulously we have to ponder other intellectual and lingual capabilities of these two poets. Therefore, with regard to those findings we can utter speeches in favor and priority of one to another. مسروره مختاری بهروز مهری ##submission.copyrightStatement## 2020-05-30 2020-05-30 5 2 7 30 10.22046/LA.2020.07 Insomnia and sleep and dreams in the poems of Saadi and Petrarca https://www.languageart.ir/index.php/LA/article/view/157 The phenomenon of insomnia is one of the poetic themes that has a high frequency in Saadi's poetry as a poetic character and style. Insomnia in love is a theme that in both Western and Eastern literature and specifically in the Persian literature has always been used as a very important subject. So many beautiful poems that express poet’s night's suffering and sadness in the memories of his beloved. The poets in this research have written a long time about the sleepless nights, the long night of love. As a fact, Insomnia and dreams are also mysterious and surprising elements that are often found in the poet's love poems, usually as an internal element in the semantic structure of poetry itself. Poets in their night dreams and insomnia achieve their unfulfilled dreams in their real life. In this essay, the authors seek a comparative study of the sleepless nights and dreams of Italian poet Petrarch and his Persian contemporary poet, Saadi. Given the impact that the culture and literature of nations have often on each other, it is then necessary to ponder on this phenomenon. At the end of the research we will find the similarities and differences between the meaning and the use of sleep and dream in the poems of this great face of rich Eastern and Western literature. فاطمه عسگری اشرف السادات اشرفی ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-05-30 2020-05-30 5 2 31 48 10.22046/LA.2020.08 Artistic Collocation of the Word in Hafez's Verses https://www.languageart.ir/index.php/LA/article/view/177 Hafez's linguistic and rhetorical skills in his poetry have led the audience to his poetry, appropriate to the level and extent of his emotions, feelings, and knowledge of the linguistic and semantic layers of their vocabulary and their artistic and contextual connection, interpretations and meanings. Pulling many different from his poetry and thereby achieving greater enjoyment and artistic enjoyment. Hafez himself, of course, with his great knowledge and aristocracy of language and his various capacities, has been instrumental in the selection and companionship of words based on their artistic and semantic links. However, in many cases, the author's in many cases, plays the role of the reader. Poetry is undeniable in the discovery and extraction of the semantic and linguistic layers of their meticulous and solid musical words and links. One of the great scholars who has done detailed, in-depth and extensive studies in the field of Hafez, his poetry, language and thought and dedicated valuable work to the literary and scientific community in this difficult field, is Dr. Mohammad Rastgou, who has authored and his research has always been and remains a pioneer in the field of linguists and researchers, in particular hieroglyphics and ontology. This article seeks to endorse Dr. Rastgou's explanations and material in connection with Hafez's artistic practices, and further points to complement and explain the greater artistic capacities of Hafez's poetry, and especially those in question. The research method is documentary. حسین سلیمی احمدنور وحیدی ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-05-31 2020-05-31 5 2 49 68 10.22046/LA.2020.09 A Critique on the Book of ‘hediye Jān’ https://www.languageart.ir/index.php/LA/article/view/172 This article is about critical review of the Book of ‘hediye Jān’ (A Report on Stories of Divan of Khaghani Shirvani) by Dr. Ata Mohammad Radmanesh. In this paper, we will show that for some reasons, such as lack of research in the history of the research, tolerance and latitude, the failure to cite all references and misunderstandings of parts of the text, the present text is not reliable and its shortcomings needs to be revised and redefined to increase its richness. Also, since this book of has been prepared to explain a number of Khaghani odes, it is necessary to study this book parallel to the other one; therefore, in the first part of the article, we review the book and the field of critique of structure and in the second part of the criticizing of describing the content of the book has been considered and then the shortcomings of each one has been examined. اکبر حیدریان ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-05-30 2020-05-30 5 2 69 84 10.22046/LA.2020.10 Word Order: Merge or Externalisation? https://www.languageart.ir/index.php/LA/article/view/175 The word order phenomenon and its various derivations has been of most interest for the generative theory which was keen on identifying the different grammatical computations explaining it. As such, in the frame of Government and Binding theory, the –X’ theory established its technical conception of the structure on the basis that SVO is a universal order inherent in Universal Grammar. However, the Generative Theory soon rejected this conception under the Minimalist program by assuming that the system is blind to word order and that diversity in order is not derived from Universal Grammar, it is rather a characteristic of external cognitive systems. In fact, the structures are merged in a free way in the computational system, then, they come out in the sensory motor system in different patterns according to the different data provided in each experiment. In this general theoretical framework, this work is meant to investigate the computations that generate word order in human languages, and, to show in the process, that the generative conception gives rise to an intricate technical problem that assumes, on the one hand, free merge computations, and on the other hand, linking diversity to the featural valuation procedure. In fact, from a technical standpoint, I noticed that within the Minimalist Program, we are bound to adopt a universal word order right starting from the computational system from which are derived the patterns of order observed in human languages because every processing of word order requires a computational departure from a ready-made syntactic structure. سميّة المكّي ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-05-30 2020-05-30 5 2 85 102 10.22046/LA.2020.11 NLization with EUGENE: A UNL Approach https://www.languageart.ir/index.php/LA/article/view/167 “Universal Networking Language is a computer language created to represent and process information across language barriers (Uchida, et al., 2001).” The process of text conversion and text deconversion is carried out by two components of the UNL system i.e. IAN (Interactive Analyzer) and EUGENE (Deep to Surface Structure Generator). The purpose of the present work is to implement the EUGENE tool for NLizing the UCA-1 corpus (corpus available at www.unlweb.net). This work is a first serious attempt to incorporate Kashmiri language in the UNL, thus paving a way for the development of a Machine Translation System for Kashmiri language. Sumaira Nabi Neelofar Hussain Wani ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-05-30 2020-05-30 5 2 103 118 10.22046/LA.2020.12