LANGUAGE ART https://www.languageart.ir/index.php/LA <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;<img src="/public/site/images/admin95/ejeld1005.jpg" width="621" height="452"></p> <p>Welcome to the&nbsp;site of&nbsp;International Multilingual Journal of <strong>Language Art</strong>. This journal is a peer reviewed publication that&nbsp;studies about&nbsp;linguistic and languages, which is the only scientific journal in Islamic Republic of Iran that is published in various languages as per the choice of the author (Persian, English, Arabic, Tajik and Russian)and soon we will add some experts of French language to our Editorial Team. The journal follows double-blind peer review process. The journal seeks original manuscripts that provide theoretically informed empirical analyses of worldwide contemporary issues, as well as original theoretical or conceptual analyses.</p> <p>Print ISSN:&nbsp;2476-6526 &nbsp;&amp; Online ISSN: 2538-2713</p> <p><span style="color: black; font-size: 14pt;"><span style="font-family: Times New Roman;">&nbsp;</span></span></p> Language Art en-US LANGUAGE ART 2476-6526 <div><span style="color: white;"><img src="/public/site/images/admin95/CC-BY_icon.svg_.png" alt="" /></span><br /> <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode">"Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC-BY 4.0)"</a></div> On Cultivating Gratitude (Shukr) in Sufi Virtue Ethics https://www.languageart.ir/index.php/LA/article/view/162 Gratitude or shukr is one of the most central of Islamic virtues, the importance of which is underscored by the fact that the defining notions of “faith” and “disbelief” revolve around the pivots of shukr and kufr (= ingratitude). The article focuses on treatments of the virtue within the Sufi tradition, and even here, with a concentration specifically on the importance attached to its cultivation within the inner life of the spiritual aspirant. This is accomplished through an analysis of authors ranging from al-Ḥakīm al-Tirmidhī (d. 905–10) and Abū Ṭālib al-Makkī (d. 996) to Ibn al-ʿArabī (d. 1240) and Aḥmad Zarrūq (d. 1493). In the process the article examines the semantics of shukr in Arabic as defined in the lexicographical tradition, its use in the Qur’an, definitions of the virtue in Sufi literature, the various strategies devised by a wide range of authorities on how to go about integrating the virtue within one’s life, and finally, what are believed to be the consequences or “karmic effects” of both gratitude and ingratitude for blessings (shukr al-niʿma and kufr al-niʿma). معین کاظمی فر عطیف خلیل ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-02-29 2020-02-29 5 1 Verbs Application Range in Marzban Nameh (Variety of Meaning, Light Verbs and Arabic Root Nouns Completing the Meaning of the Light Verbs) https://www.languageart.ir/index.php/LA/article/view/170 Persian prose is developed in line with poetry in 12th and 13th centuries and reaches its climax. At this time Marzban-name which was translated and edited by great writer Sadedin Varavini and has always been welcomed by all the literature fans deserves high consideration in different aspects. Verb has special importance in linguistic examinations because it is the center of gravity and the most important part of sentence and the only element indicating the role-played by other elements. In this study some of the most important verbal functions and most frequent verbs in Marzban-name were examined including variety of the verbs' meanings and special functions. The study findings indicate the verbs are used vastly in Marzban-name and the writer has benefited from many occasions to neutralize the verbs' monotony and repetition in his work; so he has used many words to have variety of light verbs. The most usable light verb is “To do” in Persian and may be accompanied by different nouns to create a phrasal verb. About 22 percent of Arabic nouns completing the light verbs are with Persian light verbs to create phrasal verbs. مهدی صادقی امین ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-02-29 2020-02-29 5 1 On Linguistic Terminology and the Challenges of Scientific Communication https://www.languageart.ir/index.php/LA/article/view/168 It is well established that linguistic terminology is a “professional” or “specialized” language whose inadequacy at the conceptual, morphological and syntactic levels results in communication failure. This is due to the fact that the delivery of scientific knowledge requires the integrity of the relevant terms used. Studies have shown that specialized language constitutes eighty percent of scientific texts. If there is a problem in this language related to the make-up of the technical term, then scientific communication is not achieved. However, this does not mean that the problem is only a technical one, though it is. Rather, there are objective and subjective factors involved in the options and policies that have been pursued by Arab countries in the field of education and research, as well as the implications of social, cultural and cognitive failures, avoidance of institutionalized work, negligence of building an independent state, inadequate understanding of linguistic theories and approaches, and the poor development of Arabic in the field of terminology. This necessitates a review of the linguistics promoted in academia, subjecting it to scientific scrutiny, with view to correcting its defective aspects, introducing other theories that are suitable to the reality of our situation, and opening them to social spaces to contribute to comprehensive development, which would constitute the pillar of a societal project in this regard. مبارک حنون ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-02-29 2020-02-29 5 1 Drawing as an Expressive Activity: The Theoretical Foundation and Application in Psychology https://www.languageart.ir/index.php/LA/article/view/169 Through this article, we will address the activity of drawing as an expressive activity that refers to the emotional, cognitive and kinetic dimensions, through the presentation of the most important theories that were performed by the pioneers, which marked the beginning of new perceptions that went beyond the classical view that is a universal activity. Besides, we target to highlight that drawing is governed by cultural and neurological constraints, as well as by other variables such as age and sex. The most important conclusions are: the expression by painting is governed by universal requirements, influenced by cultural peculiarities, as well as age and gender variables. Hence, its adoption in clinical or educational practice must be very careful and based on drawing studies according to the cultural context. بنعيسى زغبوش عبد العزيز لمقدم زهير سويرتي ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-02-29 2020-02-29 5 1 A Linguistic Reading into "mā ʔanā bi-qāriʔ" https://www.languageart.ir/index.php/LA/article/view/150 When the Angel Jibril (pbuh) first met with Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) in the cave ħirāʔ, he asked him to read, saying "ʔiqraʔ", three times, and each time the prophet (pbuh) replied by saying "mā ʔanā bi-qāriʔ". This statement has been understood to mean 'I am not a reader' or 'I cannot read', and taken to indicate that the Prophet (pbuh) did not know the Holy Qur'an prior to that meeting. This paper addresses this issue, and presents another reading into this statement by the Prophet (pbuh) by providing a linguistic analysis that reveals that this statement can have another meaning, or rather the opposite one. The analysis, which assumes that mā is the interrogative, not negative, mā particle, will show that the statement may also mean 'what shall I read?', which indicates that prophet Muhammad (pbuh) knew the Holy Qur'an prior to the first meeting with the angel (pbuh). راشد بن علي البلوشي ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-02-29 2020-02-29 5 1 Genre Analysis of Article Abstract Sections across Translation Studies and English Literature https://www.languageart.ir/index.php/LA/article/view/128 Research article abstract play a central role in enhancing the visibility of scientific work. As such, writing clear and informative abstract is of paramount importance for any academic discourse community. To contribute to the present body of research findings, the present investigation was conducted to explore the probable rhetorical differences between research article abstract sections across the two disciplines of English literature and translation studies with reference to Swales' (2004) CARS model, an issue, which has not been addressed to date. Precisely, the study sought to discover what rhetorical structures characterize the article abstract sections written by translation and English literature researchers. The corpus featured 100 abstracts from both disciplines published in international journals that were analyzed in terms of the aforementioned model to unravel their underlying rhetoric structure. Overall, analyses revealed no significant cross-disciplinary difference between the rhetoric structures of the two sets of corpora except in terms of Step 1A of Move 2 (Indicating a gap). Specifically, it was found that the translation studies and English literature abstracts more often provided a clear reference to the primary purpose, principal outcomes, and methodology. To conclude, the pedagogical and theoretical significance of the findings were discussed in light of relevant theory and available research evidence. مریم ملک زاده ##submission.copyrightStatement## http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2020-02-29 2020-02-29 5 1