A Corpus-based Approach to Cognitive Metaphors in Persian: The Study of Fear Target Domain

  • Amirsaeid Moloodi Shiraz University
  • Gholamhossein Karimi-Doostan Terhan University

Abstract

The present research investigates the metaphorical conceptualization of fear target domain in Persian based on Conceptual Theory of Metaphor. For the mentioned purpose, the Corpus-based method of Metaphorical Pattern Analysis is applied to Hamshahri Corpus 2 and after data analysis, 39 source domains are identified for the fear target domain. One of the results of this research is determining the productivity of all the source domains based on their frequency of occurrences in the corpus. Also, after comparing the results of the present research with those of ones in which collecting data for fear domain has been done by traditional methods, the superiority of the Corpus-based method of the present research is approved. Another significant finding of the present research is the identification of prototypical and non-prototypical models of the fear target domain in Persian.

References

Afrashi, A. and Samet Jokandan, S. S. (2012). ˀesteˀārehāye mafhumiye rang dar zabāne fārsi: tahlile ʃenāxti va peykare bonyād, Mohammad Dabir Moghaddam, the Proceedings of the 8th Conference on Iranian Linguistics, Vol. 1, Tehran: Allame Tabataba'I University, pp. 42-54.

AleAhmad, A., Amiri, H., Darrudi, E., Rahgozar, M., & Oroumchian, F. (2009). Hamshahri: A Standard Persian Text Collection, Knowledge-Based Systems, 22 (5): 382-387.

Amini, M. (1992). Motāleˀeye ˀesteˀārehāye zabāne fārsi dar qālebe nazariyehāye ǰadide zabānʃenāxti-falsafi, M. A. Thesis on Linguistics, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran.

Anthony, L. (2014). AntConc Version 3.4.3 [Computer Software]. Tokyo, Japan: Waseda University, Retrieved from http://www.laurenceanthony.net/software/antconc/.

Anvari, H. (2011). Farhange kenāyāte soxan, Tehran: Sokhan.

Apresjan, V. (1997). Emotion Metaphors and Cross-linguistic Conceptualization of Emotions. Cuadernos de filologia inglesa, 6(2), 179-195.

Dehkhoda, A. (). Loqat-nāme, Tehran: Tehran University Press.

Dehkhoda, A. (1960). ˀamsālo hekam, Tehran: Amir Kabir.

Deignan, A. (1995). Cobuild Guides to English 7: Metaphor. London: HarperCollins.

Deignan, A. (1999). Corpus-based Research into Metaphor. In L. Cameron & G. Low (Eds.), Researching and Applying Metaphor (pp. 177–199). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Deignan, A. (2006). The Grammar of Linguistic Metaphors. Trends in Linguistics Studies and Monographs, 171, 106-122.

Faraji, E. (2009). ˀesteˀārehāye mafhumi dar motune siyāsiye ˀentexābāt: ˀāentexābāte riyāsat ǰomhuriye ˀirān 2009, M. A. Thesis on Linguistics, Ilam: University of Ilam, Iran.

Fauconnier, G., & Turner, M. B. (1994). Conceptual Projection and Middle Spaces. UCSD Cognitive Science Technical Report 9401.

Fauconnier, G., & Turner, M. B. (1996). Blending as a Central Process of Grammar. In A. Goldberg (Ed.), Conceptual Structure, Discourse, and Language (pp. 113-129). Stanford: CSLI Publications.

Fauconnier, G., & Turner, M. B. (1998). Conceptual Integration Networks. Cognitive Science, 22(2): 133-187.

Geeraerts, D. (2010). Theories of Lexical Semantics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Gibbs, R. W. (1994). The Poetics of Mind: Figurative Thought, Language, and Understanding. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Golshayi, R.; Golfam, A.; Asi, S. M. and Agha Golzade, F. (2014). ˀarzyābiye peykare bonyāde mafruzāte nazariyeye ˀesteˀāreye mafhumi: barrasiye morediye ˀesteˀāreye "bahs be masabeye ǰang dar zabāne fārsi, Language Related Research, Vol. 5, No. 1, Serial No. 17, pp. 223-248.

Hanks, P. (2004). The Syntagmatics of Metaphor and Idiom. International Journal of Lexicography, 17(3), 245-274.

Hassan Dokht, S. (2009). Barrasiye ˀesteˀāre ˀaz didgāhe ʃenāxti dar ˀʃˀāre foruqe farroxzād, M. A. Thesis on Linguistics, Tehran: Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran.

Homayi, J. (2015). Fonune belāqat va sanāˀāte ˀadabi, Tehran: Homa.

Jäkel, O. (1995). The Metaphorical Concept of Mind: "Mental Activity is Manipulation''. In J. R. Taylor and R. E. MacLaury (Eds.), Language and the Cognitive Construal of the World (pp. 197–229), Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Khoda Parasti, F. (1997). A Comprehensive Dictionary of Persian‭ Synonyms and Antonyms, Shiraz: Fars Encyclopedia.

Koivisto-Alanko, P. (2000). Abstract Words in Abstract Worlds: Directionality and Prototypical Structure in the Semantic Change in English Nouns of Cognition. Helsinki: Société Néophilologique.

Kövecses, Z. (1990). Emotion Concepts. New York: Springer-Verlag.

Kövecses, Z. (2004) Metaphor and Emotion: Language, Culture, and Body in Human Feeling. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Kövecses, Z. (2005). Metaphor in Culture: Universality and Variation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kövecses, Z. (2006). Universality and Variation in the Use of Metaphor. In N. L. Johannesson & D.C. Minugh (Eds.), Selected Papers from the 2006 and 2007 Stockholm Metaphor Festivals (pp. 51–74). Stockholm: Department of English, Stockholm University.

Kövecses, Z. (2010). Metaphor: A Practical Introduction. New York: Oxford University Press.

Lakoff, G, & Turner, M. (1989). More than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor, Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lakoff, G. (1987). Women, Fire and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal about the Mind. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lakoff, G. (1993). The Contemporary Theory of Metaphor. In A. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and Thought (pp. 202-251), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lakoff, G. (2008). The Neural Theory of Metaphor. In R. W. Gibbs (Ed.), Cambridge Handbook of Metaphor and Thought (pp. 17-38), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1980). Metaphors We Live by. Chicago and London: The University of Chicago Press.

Lakoff, G., & Johnson, M. (1999). Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and its Challenge to Western Thought. New York: Basic books.

Lakoff, G., & Kövecses, Z. (1987). The Cognitive Model of Anger Inherent in American English. In D. Holland & N. Quinn (Eds.), Cultural Models in Language and Thought (pp. 195-221), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Malekian, M. (2012). Barrasiye kārborde ˀesteˀāreye ˀhsās dar kārborde ruz marre: motāleˀeye morediye ʃahre tehrān, M. A. Thesis on Linguistics, Tehran: Alzahra University.

Mansoubi, A. (2010). Barrasiye ˀesteˀāre dar zabāne dard ˀaz didgāhe zabān ʃenāsiye ʃenāxti, M. A. Thesis on Linguistics, Tehran: Alzahra University.

Martin, J. H. (2006). A Corpus-based Analysis of Context Effects on Metaphor Comprehension. In A. Stefanowitch & S. T. Gries (Eds.), Corpus-Based Approaches to Metaphor and Metonymy (pp. 214–236), Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Moshaashaai, P. (2001). ˀesteˀāre dar zabāne fārsi, M. A. Thesis on Linguistics, Tehran: Allame Tabataba'I University.

Newman, J. (2009). A Cross-linguistic Overview of ‘Eat 'and ‘Drink’. In J. Newman (Eds.), the Linguistics of Eating and Drinking (pp. 1-26). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Partington, A. (2003). Linguistics of Political Argument: The Spin-Doctor and the Wolf-Pack at the White House. London: Routledge.

Pirzad, Sh., Pazhakh, A., & Hayati, A. (2012). A Comparative Study on Basic Emotion Conceptual Metaphors in English and Persian Literary Texts. International Education Studies, 5(1), 200-207.

Reddy, M. (1979). The Conduit Metaphor. In A. Ortony (Ed.), Metaphor and Thought (pp. 284–324), Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Rouhi, M. (2008). Barrasiye ˀesteˀāreye ˀehsāsāt dar zabāne fārsi, M. A. Thesis on Linguistics, Hamedan: Bu-Ali Sina University.

Safavi, K. (2008). Darāmadi bar maˀni ʃenāsi, Tehran: Sureye Mehr.

Seifollahi, K. (2003). Tahlili bar farāyandhāye darke ˀesteˀāre dar zabāne fārsi, M. A. Thesis on Linguistics, Tehran: Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad university, Tehran, Iran.

Sharafzade M. and Zare, A. (2012). Barrasiye ʃenāxtiye mafhume ˀesteˀāriye tars dar zabāne fārsi, Mohammad Dabir Moghaddam, the Proceedings of the 8th Conference of Iranian Linguistics, Vol. 1, Tehran: Allame Tabataba'I University, pp. 400-407.

Stefanowitsch, A. (2004). HAPPINESS in English and German: A Metaphorical-pattern Analysis. In M. Achard & S. Kemmer (Eds.), Language, Culture, and Mind (pp. 137–149). Stanford: CSLI Publications.

Stefanowitsch, A. (2006a). Corpus-Based Approaches to Metaphor and Metonymy. In A. Stefanowitch & S. T. Gries (Eds.), Corpus-Based Approaches to Metaphor and Metonymy (pp. 1–16), Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Stefanowitsch, A. (2006b). Words and Their Metaphors: A Corpus-based Approach, In A. Stefanowitch and S. Th. Gries (Eds.), Corpus-Based Approaches to Metaphor and Metonymy (64–105), Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Taj, M. (2010). Kārborde ˀesteˀāriye rangvāžehā dar zabāne fārsi, M. A. thesis on Linguistics, Tehran: Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad university, Tehran, Iran.

Tissari, H. (2003). LOVEscapes: Changes in Prototypical Senses and Cognitive Metaphors since 1500. Helsinki: Société néophilologique.

Türker, E. (2013). A Corpus-based Approach to Emotion Metaphors in Korean. Review of Cognitive Linguistics, 11(1), 73-144.

Yousefie Rad, F. (2003). Barrasiye ˀesteˀāreye zamān dar zabāne fārsi bā ruykarde maˀni ʃenāsiye ʃenāxti, M. A. Thesis on Linguistics, Tehran: Tarbiat Modares University.

Zahedi, K. and Darikvand, E. (2011). ˀesteˀārehā ʃenāxti daar ʃeˀr va nasre fārsi va ˀingilisi, Critical Language and Literary Studies, Vol. 3, No. 6, Serial No. 64, pp. 87-106.

Zahedi, K. and Zahhab Nazouri, S. (2011). Nāme ˀandāmhāye howzeye sar dar zarbolmasalhā va hekame fārsi va ˀingilisi: tahlile ʃenāxti va peykarebonyāde farhangi, Advances in Cognitive Sciences, Vol. 13, No. 4, Serial No. 52, pp. 1-18.

Zour Varz, M. Afrashi, A. and Asi, S. M. (2013). ˀesteˀārehāye mafhumiye ʃādi dar zabāne fārsi: yek tahlile peykare madār, Journal of Linguistics and Khorasn Dialects, Vol. 5, No. 2, Serial No. 9, pp. 49-72.

Published
2017-11-24
How to Cite
Moloodi, A., & Karimi-Doostan, G. (2017). A Corpus-based Approach to Cognitive Metaphors in Persian: The Study of Fear Target Domain. LANGUAGE ART, 2(4), 7-40. https://doi.org/10.22046/LA.2017.19
Section
Article