The Effectiveness of Strategic Activities on the Conversational Skills A Case Study: Persian Language Learners Abroad
This paper investigates the effectiveness of those activities which are based on all types of strategies for teaching conversational skills. These strategies are practiced in the form of 17 activities and their effectiveness on the oral language performane of Persian learners has been investigated. The second language learning strategies in this research are dependent on two Kuhn's paradigms and include "learning" and "using" second language. The former consists of recognition and acceptance of materials, distinction from other materials, categorizing them for a better learning, constant involvement with materials, using common memorization methods for rehearsal to improve natural conversation learning. The teacher's Linguistics and Iranology knowledge in choosing teaching materials, producing similarities and differences in two languages, lexical and syntactic categorizations of activities based on the first to the third strategies were implemented in the classroom. Informal gatherings, appropriate assignments of certain tasks like memorizing the dialogues or proverbs were practiced for the fourth and the fifth strategies. These strategies were applied on 19 undergaduate intermediate Persian language learners, with Slav mother tongue in 5 successive semesters from 2011 to 2013. In this research, it was affirmed that there is a positive correlation between using strategic activities with the improvement of converational skill of language learners. That is, the more learners are active in the activities related to strategies, the better they become in the conversational skill.
Baker, W. and Boonkit, K. (2004). Learning Strategies in Reading and Writing: EAP Contexts. RELC Journal, 35(3), pp.299-328.
Bailey, K.M., et al. (1996). The language learner’s autobiography: Exmining the ‘apprenticeship of observation’. In Freeman, D. and Richards, J.C. (eds.), Teacher learning in language teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Brown, H. Douglas (2001). Teaching by principles : an interactive approach to language pedagogy (2nd ed). Longman, White Plains, N.Y. ;[Great Britain].
Cekaite, A. & Aronsson, K. (2005). Language play: A collaborative resource in children’s L2 learning. Applied Linguistics, 26(2), pp.169-191.
Chamot, A.U. (2009). The CALLA handbook: Implementing the cognitive academic language learning approach. New York: Allyn & Bacon.
Cohen, A. (2010). Focus on the language learner: Styles, strategies and motivation. In N. Schmitt (Ed.), An introduction to applied linguistics (pp.161-178). 2nd ed. London: Hodder Education.
Cohen, A. (2000). Strategies-based instruction for learners of a second language. NASSP Bulletin 84(612): pp.10–18.
Cohen, A.D. & Weaver, S.J. (2006). Styles and strategies-based instruction: A teachers’ guide. Minneapolis, MN: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition, University of Minnesota.
Crookall, D. (2007). Second Language acquisition and simulation, Simulation & Gaming, Sage publication. pp.6-8.
Dornyei, Zoltan (2005). The Psychology of the Language Learner: Individual Differences in Second Language Acquisition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Ellis, N.C. (2003). Constructions, chunking, and connectionism: The emergence of second language structure. The handbook of second language acquisition, 14, p.63.
Foster, P. & Skehen, P. (1996). The Influence of Planning and Task Type on Second Language Performance. Studies in second language acquisition. 18(03), pp. 299-323.
Freeman, D. (1996). 16 The" unstudied problem": Research on teacher learning in language teaching. Teacher learning in language teaching, p. 351.
Griffiths, C. (2008). Lessons from good language learners. Cambridge University Press.
Hymes, D. (1974). Foundations in sociolinguistics. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.
Levelt, W. J. (1993). Speaking: From intention to articulation (Vol. 1). MIT press.
O'malley, J.M., & Chamot, A.U. (1990). Learning strategies in second language acquisition. Cambridge university press.
Oxford, R. L. (1990). Language learning strategies (Vol. 210). New York: Newbury House.
Ringbom, H. (2007). Cross-linguistic similarity in foreign language learning (Vol. 21). Multilingual Matters.
Rose, H. L. (2012). Language learning strategy research: Where do we go from here?. In Studies in Self-Access Learning Journal, 3(2), pp. 137-148.
Rubin, J. (1975). What the" good language learner" can teach us. TESOL quarterly, pp. 41-51.
Sanz, C. (2005). Mind and context in adult second language acquisition: Methods, theory, and practice. Georgetown University Press.
Sutton-Smith, B. (2009). The ambiguity of play. Harvard University Press.
Taguchi, N. (2007). Chunk learning and the development of spoken discourse in a Japanese as a foreign language classroom. Language Teaching Research, 11(4), pp. 433-457.
Vakilifard A., Khaleghizadeh Sh. (2014) Strategies for learning Persian: analysis of relationship between nationality and application of strategies among foreign Persian learners. Language Related Research. Vol.5, No.2 (Tome 18), pp. 261- 286.
VanPatten B. & Benati A.G. (2010). Key Terms in Second Language Acquisition, Publisher: Continuum, London.
Wells, G. (1994). Towards a sociocultural practice and theory of education, Cambridge University Press.
Winne, P.H. and Hadwin, A.F. (1998). Studying as self-regulated learning. Metacognition in educational theory and practice, 93, pp.27-30.
Woodrow, L. (2005). The challenge of measuring language learning strategies. Foreign Language Annals, 38(1), pp.90–100.
Copyright (c) 2017 Zahra Abolhassani Chimeh
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.