NLization with EUGENE: A UNL Approach

  • Sumaira Nabi Ph.D in Linguistics, Assistant professor (contractual) National Institute of Technology, Srinagar, India.
  • Neelofar Hussain Wani Assistant Professor, Department of English, King Khalid University, Abha, Saudi Arabia.
Keywords: UNL, NLizing, Kashmiri Language


“Universal Networking Language is a computer language created to represent and process information across language barriers (Uchida, et al., 2001).” The process of text conversion and text deconversion is carried out by two components of the UNL system i.e. IAN (Interactive Analyzer) and EUGENE (Deep to Surface Structure Generator). The purpose of the present work is to implement the EUGENE tool for NLizing the UCA-1 corpus (corpus available at This work is a first serious attempt to incorporate Kashmiri language in the UNL, thus paving a way for the development of a Machine Translation System for Kashmiri language.


Adly, Noha, and Sameh Al Ansary. “Evaluation of Arabic Machine Translation System based on the Universal Networking Language.” Natural Language Processing and Information Systems, edited by Helmut Horacek et al., Springer, 2009, pp. 243-257.

Cardeñosa, Jesús, et al., editors. Universal Networking Language: Advances in Theory and Applications. Centre for Computing Research of IPN, 2005.

“Dictionary Specifications,” [online].Available [Accessed July 2019]

Hutchins, W. John, and Harold L. Somers. An Introduction to Machine Translation. Academic P., 1992.

Hutchins, W. John. “Machine translation: A Brief History.” Concise History of the Language Sciences, edited by E.F.K. Koerner, and R.E. Asher, Pergamon,1995, pp.431-445.

Kak, Aadil A. “Teaching English to Kashmiri Students and the Myth of the Standard Native-like Proficiency.” English Studies in India, vol. 13, 2005, pp. 127-140.

Kak, Aadil A., and Ratan Talashi. Keshur: Akh Grammari Vetshnai (Kashmiri: A Grammatical Description). Nihar Publications, 2004.

Kak, Aadil A., et al. “Phrase Structure in Kashmiri: A UNL Approach.” International Conference on Advances in Computers, Communication and Electronic Engineering, Department of Electronics, University of Kashmir, 2015, pp. 115-1

Le Thuyen, Phan Thi, and Vo Trung Hung. “Automatic Translation for Vietnamese based on UNL Language.” International Conference on Electronics, Information, and Communications (ICEIC). IEEE, 2016.

How to Cite
Nabi, S., & Wani, N. (2020). NLization with EUGENE: A UNL Approach. LANGUAGE ART, 5(2), 103-118.